Guides to Fine Arts Like Painting, Designing, Architecture, Sculpture, Photography and More

Project Gutenberg's Masters of Water-Colour Painting, by H. M. Cundall

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org


Title: Masters of Water-Colour Painting

Author: H. M. Cundall

Editor: Geoffrey Holme

Release Date: August 23, 2007 [EBook #22379]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MASTERS OF WATER-COLOUR PAINTING ***




Produced by Louise Hope, Michael Ciesielski and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net






Each painting is shown as a thumbnail linked to a larger view.
Painting sizes containing fractions may not display correctly on all browsers. If they appear as garbage, make sure the browser’s “file encoding” or “character set” is set to Unicode (UTF-8); if they don’t display at all, you may not have the right fonts.
Mouse-hover popups, as in this sentence, show the numbers in an alternative format.



MASTERS OF WATER-
COLOUR PAINTING

WITH INTRODUCTION BY H. M. CUNDALL, I.S.O., F.S.A.




EDITED BY GEOFFREY HOLME
LONDON: THE STUDIO, LTD., 44 LEICESTER SQUARE, W.C.2
1922-1923
v

CONTENTS


PAGE
Introduction by H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A. 1
ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOURS


PLATE
Bonington, Richard Parkes
Near Jumièges
xxiv
Cotman, John Sell
Classical Scene
xiii
Cox, David
Boys Fishing
xviii
Cozens, John Robert
Lake Nemi
x
Dayes, Edward
Furness Abbey, Lancashire
vii
De Wint, Peter
St. Albans
xvi
Farington, R.A., Joseph
Scotch Landscape
v
Fielding, A. V. Copley
Lake Scene
xvii
Girtin, Thomas
Landscape
xi
Glover, John
View in North Wales
xv
Harding, James Duffield
Vico, Bay of Naples
xx
Hearne, Thomas
View of Gloucester
iv
Holland, James
A Shrine in Venice
xxii
Hunt, William Henry
Plucking the Fowl
xxi
Malton, Thomas, Jun.
Old Palace Yard, Westminster
vi
Prout, Samuel
Palazzo Contarini Fasan on the Grand Canal, Venice
xix
Pyne, James Baker
View in Italy
xxiii
vi Rooker, A.R.A., Michael (Angelo)
Village Scene
iii
Rowlandson, Thomas
Entrance to Vauxhall Gardens
ix
Sandby, R.A., Paul
Windsor Castle: View of the Round and Devil’s Towers from the Black Rock
i
Towne, Francis
On the Dart
ii
Turner, R.A., J. M. W.
Lucerne: Moonlight
xii
Varley, John
Hackney Church
xiv
Wheatley, R.A., Francis
Preparing for Market
viii
THE EDITOR DESIRES TO ACKNOWLEDGE HIS INDEBTEDNESS TO MR. A. E. HUTTON, MR. R. W. LLOYD, MR. VICTOR RIENAECKER, MR. G. BELLINGHAM SMITH AND MESSRS. THOS. AGNEW & SONS WHO HAVE KINDLY LENT THEIR DRAWINGS FOR REPRODUCTION IN THIS VOLUME.
1

INTRODUCTION

The earliest form of painting was with colours ground in water. Egyptian artists three thousand years B.C. used this method, and various mediums, such as wax and mastic, were added as a fixative. It was what is now known as tempera painting. The Greeks acquired their knowledge of the art from the Egyptians, and later the Romans dispersed it throughout Europe. They probably introduced tempera painting into this country for decoration of the walls of their houses. The English monks visited the Continent and learnt the art of miniature painting for illuminating their manuscripts by the same process. Owing to opaque white being mixed with the colours the term of painting in body-colour came in use. Painting in this manner was employed by artists throughout Europe in making sketches for their oil paintings.
Two such drawings by Albrecht Dürer, produced with great freedom in the early part of the sixteenth century, are in the British Museum. The Dutch masters also employed the same means. Holbein introduced the painting of miniature portraits into this country, for although the monks inserted figures in their illuminations, little attempt was made in producing likenesses. As early as the middle of the seventeenth century the term “water colours” came into use. In an inventory, in manuscript, of the personal estate of Charles I, which was sold by an Act of Parliament, numerous pictures are thus described.
Wenceslaus Hollar, a native of Prague, came to England in 1637, and became drawing-master to the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York. The painting of landscapes was first introduced by him into this country. He made topographical drawings with a reed pen, and afterwards added slight local colours. The earliest Englishman known to follow this style was Francis Barlow. He is principally noted for his drawings with a pen, slightly tinted, of animals and birds, with landscapes in the background. Later, Peter Monamy, a marine painter who was born in Jersey, produced drawings in a similar manner. Early in the eighteenth century Pieter Tillemans came to England, and painted hunting scenes, race-horses and country-seats. He worked in a free style in washes of colour without any outlines with a pen or underlying grey tints. To a “Natural History of Birds,” by George Edwards, library keeper to the Royal College of Physicians, published in 1751, is added an appendix, entitled, “A Brief and General Idea of Drawing and Painting in Water Colours: Intended for the amusement of the curious rather than the instruction of artists.” In it he states, “There are two ways of painting in water colours: one by mixing white with your colours and laying on a thick body; the other is only washing your paper or vellum with a thin water tinctured with colour.” After giving details of the methods to be employed he adds, “the former method of using water colours is called painting and the other washing or staining.” During the latter half of the century it became a fashion for landed gentry to have engravings made of their country seats, and antiquarian publications with illustrations were produced. These created a demand for 2 topographical draughtsmen to assist the engravers. In the catalogues of the Exhibitions of the Society of Artists, the first of which was held in 1760, the drawings by these men are styled as being “stained,” “tinted,” or “washed.”
The English School of Water-Colour Painting was now firmly established, and several artists have been claimed to be the “father” of it. Amongst them were William Tavener, an amateur painter, whose drawings were never topographically correct, as he exaggerated buildings to give them a classic appearance; Samuel Scott, a marine painter and styled the English Canaletto, he was called by Horace Walpole “the first painter of the age—one whose works will charm any age,” and was also a friend of Hogarth; also Alexander Cozens, born in Russia and the reputed son of Peter the Great, but lately it has been suggested that Richard Cozens, a ship-builder, who went to Russia in 1700, may have been his father. He was sent to Italy to study art, and afterwards came to England. He professed to teach amateurs how to produce pictures without study. Edwards, in his “Anecdotes of Painting,” describes his process as dashing out a number of accidental large blots and loose flourishes from which he selected forms and sometimes produced very grand ideas. Dayes called him “Blotmaster-general to the town.”
The painter, however, who is most generally regarded as being the father of water-colour painting was Paul Sandby, R.A. He first obtained employment in the Military Drawing Office of the Tower of London. Afterwards he resided with his elder brother, Thomas Sandby, at Windsor. At first he painted in the usual tinted manner of the period, but later he worked with body-colour, by which manner he added considerable richness to his drawings. Windsor Castle: View of the Round and Devil’s Towers from the Black Rock (Plate I) is an admirable example of his latter method. The drawing has been acquired through the Felton Bequest Fund, and now hangs in the National Gallery of Victoria. Paul Sandby was for many years the chief drawing-master at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. He was also appointed by George III to give instruction in drawing to his sons.
The work of Francis Towne has only of recent years come to be appreciated. He belonged to a Devonshire family, but the exact place of his birth is not known. He became a friend of William Pars, A.R.A., from whom he received some instruction in drawing, and also went with him to Rome in 1780. Although he spent considerable time on the Continent, numerous drawings by him exist of scenes in his native country. On the Dart (Plate II) is a good example of his delicate method of painting. His special skill lay “in the management of even pen-line and in a subtle modulation of colour upon a flat surface.”
Amongst the early topographical men was Michael (Angelo) Rooker, A.R.A. The additional Christian name is said to have been given to him by Paul Sandby, under whom he studied for some time. He made pedestrian tours through England, and executed a large number of drawings, which are remarkable for their accuracy and delicate treatment, such as the Village Scene (Plate III).
3 Thomas Hearne was a contemporary with Rooker. It was a custom at this period for topographical artists to travel abroad with British Embassies to foreign countries and with Governors to Colonial possessions. Photography had not yet been invented, and the drawings by these artists were the only means by which the majority of inhabitants of this island were able to obtain some idea of places beyond the sea. Hearne went to the Leeward Isles, as draughtsman to the Governor, and produced records of the scenery there. Afterwards he executed a number of drawings in this country, some of which were engraved in “Antiquities of Great Britain.” View of Gloucester (Plate IV) is an example of his accurate drawing, though somewhat weak in colouring. Joseph Farington, R.A., received instruction in drawing from Wilson, and his paintings show slight evidence of it, as may be seen from the Scotch Landscape (Plate V), but he simply copied Nature without enduing his work with any of his master’s poetic reeling. Thomas Malton, Junr., was noted for the accuracy with which he drew architectural views, many of them being street scenes in London, and they are of considerable value as records. Old Palace Yard, Westminster (Plate VI) is interesting as showing buildings on the north side of Henry VII’s Chapel of the Abbey, which have long since been demolished. He published works aquatinted by himself, including Westminster, which appeared in 1792. He held classes at which Girtin and Turner attended. The latter used to say, “My early master was Tom Malton.” Edward Dayes was a versatile artist; he painted architectural subjects, into which he frequently introduced figures, such as Furness Abbey (Plate VII), executed miniatures and engraved in mezzotint. He also wrote several works on art. Buckingham House, St. James’s Park, in which a number of the beau monde are seen promenading in the park, is one of his best paintings. An engraving of it by F. D. Soiron, produced in 1793, under the title of Promenade in St. James’s Park, was very popular.
Francis Wheatley, R.A., was a topographical artist, but is better known as a painter of genre subjects, especially by the engravings after “The Cries of London.” Preparing for Market (Plate VIII) is a good example of his latter work, which was somewhat insipid.
The reputation of Thomas Rowlandson, who could paint landscapes with great ability, rests upon his caricatures, which were usually drawn in outline and tinted. He lived a somewhat dissipated life, and possessed an abundant sense of humour, as displayed in the Entrance to Vauxhall Gardens (Plate IX), the noted place of amusement and rendezvous of the fashionable set in the early part of the last century.
John Robert Cozens, the son of Alexander Cozens, was the first artist at this period “to break away from the trammels of topography, and to raise landscape painting in water colours to a branch of fine art.” He travelled abroad and studied principally in Italy and Switzerland. The lake of Nemi, situated in the Campagna, some sixteen miles west of Rome, and reached by the famous Via Appia, has always been a favourite subject with both poets and artists. Near the north rim of the 4 worn-out crater, in which the lake is situated, is the village of Nemi, surmounted by a fine old castle, which passed through the hands of many noble families. Pope, Byron, and others have sung the praises of the lake. Turner has left at least five drawings of it, one of which is engraved in Hakewell’s “Italy.” William Pars, Richard Wilson and other artists of the early landscape school also painted the scene. Cozens made many drawings of Nemi and the vicinity. Two are in the Victoria and Albert Museum and another is in the Whitworth Institute, Manchester. The painting (Plate X), belonging to Mr. R. W. Lloyd, shows the lake with Palazzo Cesarini on a height by its side, and the Campagna in the distance. It is a fine example of Cozens’ work treated in his poetic manner, and into which more colour than usual has been introduced. Cozens’ last visit to Italy was made in 1782 in company with the noted William Beckford, the author of “Vathek.” On his return he gradually lost his reason. It is pathetic to think such was the sad end of a man inspired with such artistic talents. As it has already been stated, he was the pioneer in exalting water-colour painting to a fine art. His footsteps were quickly followed by Girtin and Turner. The history of these two artists, how during their early struggles they were befriended by that art patron, Dr. Thomas Monro, a capable water-colour painter himself, and well qualified to give advice, is too well known to need repetition.
Girtin, during his short career, had no selfish ideas of keeping his knowledge of painting to himself. It was mainly due to his initiation that a club was started amongst a small body of young artists for the study of landscape painting. They met at each other’s houses in rotation. One of its prominent members was Sir Robert Ker Porter, a painter, traveller and author, who afterwards married a Russian princess. He was living, at the time, at 16, Great Newport Street, which had formerly been a residence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and subsequently that of Dr. Samuel Johnson. It was in this house that the first meeting of the club was held “for the purpose of establishing by practice a School of Historic Landscape, the subjects being designs from poetick passages.” Writing in The Somerset House Gazette, in 1823, W. H. Pyne, under the pseudonym of
Ephraim
Hardcastle, states “this artist (Girtin) prepared his drawings on the same principle which had hitherto been confined to painting in oil, namely, with local colour, and shadowing the same with the individual tint of its own shadow. Previous to the practice of Turner and Girtin, drawings were shadowed first entirely throughout, whatever their component parts—houses, castles, trees, mountains, fore-grounds, middle-grounds, and distances, all with black or grey, and these objects were afterwards stained or tinted, enriched and finished, as is now the custom to colour prints. It was this new practice, introduced by these distinguished artists, that acquired for designs in water colour upon paper the title of paintings: a designation which many works of the existing school decidedly merit, as we lately beheld in the Exhibition of the Painters in Water Colours, where pictures of this class were displayed in gorgeous frames, bearing out in effect against the mass of glittering gold as powerfully as pictures in oil.” Girtin had a partiality for 5 painting in a low tone of colour and frequently on rough cartridge paper, which assisted in giving a largeness of manner to his work. The Landscape (Plate XI) is, however, rendered in a brighter key than his usual practice.
As limitation of space will not admit of giving any account of the life of Turner, already well known, it may be sufficient to say that Lucerne: Moonlight (Plate XII) was painted in 1843, and was originally in the collection of Mr. H. A. J. Munro of Novar. Ruskin, who calls it a noble drawing in his “Notes on his Drawings by the late J. M. W. Turner,” makes a mistake in the title and describes it as Zurich by Moonlight. John Sell Cotman, a member of the Norwich School, was another pioneer who did much for the advancement of water-colour painting. Unfortunately, his work was not appreciated during his career. If he had lived in the twentieth century he would have had no cause for the fits of depression to which he was subject during the greater part of life. It can be well recognised that in the first half of last century the public, who were mainly accustomed to carefully drawn topographical scenes, failed to appreciate such paintings as the Classical Scene (Plate XIII), executed with such freedom and vigour. It was recently exhibited at the Special Exhibition of Cotman’s Paintings at the Tate Gallery, when five other classical landscape compositions were also shown. Cotman’s work was not understood. His paintings, both in oil and water colour, often only realised less than a pound apiece. He was compelled to resort to teaching in order to support his family. Eventually, through the influence of his friend, Lady Palgrave, and the strong support of Turner, he obtained the post of drawing-master at King’s College School, London. His position then became more secure. Still, teaching boys in the underground rooms of Somerset House could not have been inspiriting to one who yearned to seek Nature in the open air. He could not exclaim, like “Old” Crome, when he with his pupils was once met on the banks of the Yare, “This is our academy.” He died of a broken heart. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there was a feeling amongst the artists who worked solely in water colours that they were not being fairly treated by the Royal Academy. They were ineligible to be elected members of that body, and they were of opinion that their works were never placed in a prominent position on the walls of the galleries. William Frederick Wells, a friend of Turner and said to have suggested to him the idea of producing his “Liber Studiorum,” proposed to his fellow artists that they should form a separate society for the promotion of water-colour painting. After considerable negotiations, ten artists met together in November, 1804, and founded the Society of Painters in Water Colours. The first exhibition was held in the Spring of the following year at rooms in Lower Brook Street. After various vicissitudes and many changes of abode this society, known in later years as the “Old” Society, eventually obtained a lease of the premises in Pall Mall East. Thus, after much roving for seventeen years, a permanent home was secured, and the centenary of the occupation of these galleries has just been completed. Varley and Glover were two of the original members. 6 De Wint, Copley Fielding, David Cox and Samuel Prout were subsequently elected Associates, and afterwards became full members.
Amongst the founders the name of John Varley stands out beyond the others. He was born at Hackney (see Plate XIV) in 1778. Receiving but little instruction in art besides the assistance given to him by Dr. Monro, he became a teacher of considerable reputation. Amongst his pupils were many who afterwards became famous. To mention only a few, there were William Mulready, who married his sister, Copley Fielding, who espoused his wife’s sister, W. Turner (of Oxford), David Cox, William H. Hunt, Oliver Finch and John Linnell. Varley was a prolific worker, and contributed more than seven hundred drawings to the “Old” Society, averaging about forty works annually. His style was broad and simple, with tints beautifully laid, without resort to stippling. He wrote some works on drawing and perspective. He also was an enthusiast in astrology, and compiled a “Treatise on Zodiacal Physiognomy.” John Glover was a landscape painter and produced works, both in oil and in water colours, into which he frequently introduced cattle. His father having been a small farmer may account for this partiality for animals. In water-colour painting he followed the methods of William Payne, the inventor of a grey tint known as Payne’s grey, in producing foliage by splitting the hairs of his brush in order to give a feeling of lightness, and he was partial to sunlight effects (see Plate XV). He was President of the “Old” Society on two occasions, but he resigned his membership, so as to become eligible for election to the Royal Academy. He failed in his object and joined the Society of British Artists. Glover suddenly left England in 1831, and went to the Swan River Settlement in Australia. Afterwards he removed to Tasmania, where he died.
Peter De Wint, a descendant of an old merchant family of Amsterdam, like Glover, painted in oils and water colours, but his work was far superior. He selected broad and open country for his scenes, which were executed in a rich tone with a tendency to heavy uniform green. The neighbourhood of Lincoln, where his wife, a sister of W. Hilton, R.A., was born, had special attractions to him. St. Albans (Plate XVI) shows the abbey in the ruinous state it had become from the time of the Reformation. Its restoration was not commenced until 1856, under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott, and completed later by Lord Grimthorpe. Anthony Vandyke Copley Fielding belonged to an artistic family. His father was a painter and three of his brothers all practised art with success. He was one of the most fashionable drawing-masters of his day, and a strong supporter of the “Old” Society. After being treasurer and next secretary, he was appointed president in 1831, which post he retained during his life. He was a most prolific worker and contributed about seventeen hundred drawings to the Society’s exhibitions, besides showing at the Royal Academy and Royal Institution. At first his favourite subjects were lake and mountain scenery (see Plate XVII). After he took up his residence at Brighton he turned his attention to marine painting and depicted many storms at sea. It has been exaggeratedly said that Copley Fielding was "perhaps the greatest artist after Turner for representations 7 of breadth and atmosphere." Ruskin also praised his work. Owing, however, to his very rapid method of execution there was a considerable sameness in his work.
The drawings by David Cox, although executed in an apparently careless manner, give a greater rendering of atmospheric qualities and of irradiation of light with a feeling of more movement than can be found in the works of Fielding. Cox’s early drawings were executed in a somewhat stiff and restrained manner, with a delicate finish, but afterwards his style became broad and he produced those breezy effects which are almost unrivalled. Boys Fishing (Plate XVIII) is an excellent example of his later work. When Cox returned to his native town, Birmingham, he devoted his attention to working in oils, and the City Art Gallery possesses a superb collection of his paintings in this medium. He was for the greater part of his life a teacher of drawing, and he published a “Treatise on Landscape Painting and Effect in Water Colours,” in which his views are clearly stated.*
Samuel Prout, one of the numerous Devonshire painters, also derived a great part of his income by giving instruction in drawing and painting. Numerous drawing copies for students were produced by him by means of soft-ground etching. He was at first employed by John Britton, the author of “The Beauties of England and Wales,” in making topographical drawings for this work. In 1819 he went to Normandy for the benefit of his health. There he turned his attention to producing those paintings of cathedrals and picturesque buildings for which he is noted. Later he travelled through Germany and Switzerland to Italy, and visited Rome and Venice (see Plate XIX). Afterwards he published facsimiles of many of the drawings executed during these tours on the Continent. They were produced in lithography by himself on the stone, an art in which he greatly excelled. The architectural drawings by Prout are remarkable for their picturesque treatment, rather than for correctness of construction. Details are sparsely indicated by the use of a reed pen. Bright effects of light and shade are, however, given, and the introduction of groups of figures add brilliancy to these paintings.
James Duffield Harding, like Prout, from whom he received some lessons, also excelled in lithography. Many of his paintings were reproduced by him in a publication entitled “Sketches at Home and Abroad.” He visited Italy on two occasions. Vico, in the Bay of Naples, between Castellamare and Sorrento (Plate XX), is an example of his free manner of painting. An engraving of it appeared in the “Landscape Annual” in 1832. He was a member of the “Old” Society, and also painted in oils. William Henry Hunt, familiarly called “Old” or “Billy” Hunt in his latter years by his fellow artists, to distinguish him from William Holman Hunt, was an artist with a style peculiar to himself. He painted figures, especially young rustics, with a sense of humour, but he is chiefly noted for his exquisite fruit and flower pieces, which were executed with great delicacy and with a remarkable power of rendering the effects of light and shade on the surface of the objects. To obtain these he would 8 roughly pencil out, say, a group of plums, and thickly coat each one with Chinese white, which would be left to harden. On this ground he afterwards painted his colours with a sure hand. By this means he would obtain a brilliant effect. Further, to enhance it, he would make free use of the knife on the various surroundings to give a contrast, and at the same time to produce a feeling of texture on the various surfaces, so as not to have a monotonous and flat appearance. This method of scraping up portions of the surface of the paper is clearly shown in Plucking the Fowl (Plate XXI).
James Holland commenced his artistic career by painting flowers on pottery at the factory of James Davenport at Burslem. He came to London and continued to paint flowers. After a visit to Paris he devoted himself to landscapes. Subsequently he visited Venice, and produced, in both oils and water colours, some excellent paintings remarkable for their brilliant colouring (see Plate XXII).
James Baker Pyne, born at Bristol, was a self-taught artist. He also is noted for his brilliant colouring, but there is a want of solidity in his painting. He visited the Continent and travelled as far as Italy (see Plate XXIII). His landscapes were chiefly river and lake subjects. He published “The English Lake District” and “The Lake Scenery of England,” illustrated with lithographs of his works. He was a member of the Society of British Artists, and became a vice-president. Like Girtin, the illustrious young painter Richard Parkes Bonington was cut off in life at the early age of twenty-seven. He was born at Arnold, near Nottingham. Whilst still a boy he was taken by his parents to Calais, where he received some instruction in water colours from Francia. Later the family settled in Paris. Here Bonington resided the greater part of his life. He made a few visits to England, and on the last occasion he was taken ill and died of consumption. He practised at the Louvre and the Institut, and also received instruction from Baron Gros. His paintings, in oil and water colours, were almost entirely executed in France; he, however, made one visit to Italy. In Paris his works were chiefly architectural with street scenes, admirably executed, whilst his landscapes with fine atmospheric effects (see Plate XXIV) display great freedom in execution. It is somewhat remarkable that after Cotman and Bonington had, in the first part of the nineteenth century, developed a style so greatly appreciated at the present time, so many of the landscape painters in water colours in the early Victorian era should still have adhered to the old restricted methods. Constable exercised considerable influence on the French landscape painting in oil, whilst Bonington showed the French artists the capabilities of water colours, which they did not fail to appreciate.
H. M. Cundall.
* The “Treatise” has recently been republished as the Special Autumn Number of The Studio.
 
PLATE I
“WINDSOR CASTLE: VIEW OF THE ROUND AND
DEVIL’S TOWERS FROM THE BLACK ROCK”
BY PAUL SANDBY, R.A.
(Size,
11¾ × 17¼
IN.)
(Acquired by the National Art Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne)
 
PLATE II
“ON THE DART”
BY FRANCIS TOWNE
(Size,
7 × 9¾
IN.)
(In the possession of A. E. Hutton, Esq.)
 
PLATE III
“VILLAGE SCENE”
BY MICHAEL (ANGELO) ROOKER, A.R.A.
(Size,
14½ × 18¼
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE IV
“VIEW OF GLOUCESTER”
BY THOMAS HEARNE
(Size,
7½ × 10½
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE V
“SCOTCH LANDSCAPE”
BY JOSEPH FARINGTON, R.A.
(Size,
20¾ × 33¾
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE VI
“OLD PALACE YARD, WESTMINSTER,”
BY THOMAS MALTON, JUN.
(Size, 13 × 19 IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE VII
“FURNESS ABBEY, LANCASHIRE”
BY EDWARD DAYES
(Size,
27½ × 20¾
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE VIII
“PREPARING FOR MARKET”
BY FRANCIS WHEATLEY, R.A.,
(Size, 14 × 10 IN.)
(In the possession of Messrs. Thos. Agnew & Sons)
 
PLATE IX
“ENTRANCE TO VAUXHALL GARDENS”
BY THOMAS ROWLANDSON
(Size,
9 × 12?
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE X
“LAKE NEMI”
BY JOHN ROBERT COZENS
(Size,
14½ × 21
IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XI
LANDSCAPE
BY THOMAS GIRTIN
(Size,
12¼ × 20½
IN)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XII
“LUCERNE: MOONLIGHT”
BY J. M. W. TURNER, R.A.
(Size,
11½ × 18¾
IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XIII
“CLASSICAL SCENE”
BY JOHN SELL COTMAN
(Size,
11½ × 8¼
IN.)
(In the possession of G. Bellingham Smith, Esq.)
 
PLATE XIV
“HACKNEY CHURCH”
BY JOHN VARLEY
(Size, 11 × 15 IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XV
“VIEW IN NORTH WALES”
BY JOHN GLOVER
(Size,
16? × 23
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE XVI
“ST. ALBANS”
BY PETER DE WINT
(Size,
9¾ × 14½
IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
PLATE XVII
“LAKE SCENE”
BY A. V. COPLEY FIELDING
(Size,
12¼ × 16?
IN.)
(In the Possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE XVIII
“BOYS FISHING”
BY DAVID COX
(Size,
10½ × 14½
IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XIX
“PALAZZO CONTARINI FASAN
ON THE GRAND CANAL, VENICE”
BY SAMUEL PROUT
(Size,
16? × 11½
IN.)
(In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
PLATE XX
“VICO, BAY OF NAPLES”
BY JAMES DUFFIELD HARDING
(Size,
8½ × 11¾
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE XXI
“PLUCKING THE FOWL”
BY WILLIAM HENRY HUNT
(Size,
13¾ × 14½
IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XXII
“A SHRINE IN VENICE”
BY JAMES HOLLAND
(Size,
9¾ × 6½
IN.)
(In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq.)
 
PLATE XXIII
“VIEW IN ITALY”
BY JAMES BAKER PYNE
(Size,
10¾ × 17
IN.)
(In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq.)
 
PLATE XXIV
“NEAR JUMIEGES”
BY RICHARD PARKES BONINGTON
(Size,
8¾ × 12¼
IN.)
(In the possession of Messrs. Thos. Agnew & Sons)
End of Project Gutenberg's Masters of Water-Colour Painting by H. M. Cundall

*** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MASTERS OF WATER-COLOUR PAINTING ***

***** This file should be named 22379-h.htm or 22379-h.zip *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:
        http://www.gutenberg.org/2/2/3/7/22379/

Produced by Louise Hope, Michael Ciesielski and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net


Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial
redistribution.



*** START: FULL LICENSE ***

THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE
PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK

To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at
http://gutenberg.org/license).


Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United
States.

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or
1.E.9.

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.gutenberg.org),
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided
that

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.

1.F.

1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

1.F.2.  LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right
of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal
fees.  YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT
LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE
PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH F3.  YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE
TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.

1.F.3.  LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a
defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE.

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.


Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at http://www.pglaf.org.


Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive
Foundation

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at
http://pglaf.org/fundraising.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email
business@pglaf.org.  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at http://pglaf.org

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director
     gbnewby@pglaf.org


Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit http://pglaf.org

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit: http://pglaf.org/donate


Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.


Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.


Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

     http://www.gutenberg.org

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.


This entry was posted in , Bookmark the rel='bookmark'>permalink.

0 comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.